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Registry Value Names Starting with NULL Characters

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Registry Value Names Starting with NULL Characters

Par JL's stuff
Le [2016-01-29] à 23:09:38



Présentation : Recently someone had asked on a mailing list about how to extract the registry value names that were created by a particular piece of malware. The issue was a NULL 0x0 character at the beginning of the registry value name, which prevented regedit from opening the registry key. The name is actually there, however, and consists of this NULL character and some other hex numbers, and you are able to extract it from the raw registry itself from disk and memory . We'll cover how we may accomplish these tasks, and then we'll cover how to accomplish this over the enterprise, as was asked as a followup question. Background ---------- The malware in question is referenced in a report by Symantec as well as REAQTA. We have two different registry values depending on whether or not Powershell is available on machine. Either way, the registry keys and values created by the malware are present in the user's personal registry NTUSER.DAT . Extracting the Registry ----------------------- For this part, you may use anything that allows you to pull the registry file from the disk. Some example tools may be FTK Imager X-Ways EnCase Sleuthkit or Autopsy if you need a GUI We're going to use the Sleuthkit to extract the registry file from the local disk in this case though the process would be the same for an offline or remote disk, just the disk name would differ . So first we need to figure out the offset of the NTFS volume. In order to accomplish that, we would use the mmls utility we see its invocation on line 1 below. The volume offset is highlighted on line 9 and we see that it is the only NTFS volume on this disk. Next, we need to get the unique identifying information inode for the NTUSER.DAT registry file for the user who ran the malware lines 11-23 . After we've identified the inode number for the registry file 372 , we then extract it from the disk so that we may process it offline line 26 . 1 mmls . PhysicalDrive0 2 DOS Partition Table 3 Offset Sector 0 4 Units are in 512-byte sectors 5 6 Slot Start End Length Description 7 00 Meta 0000000000 0000000000 0000000001 Primary Table 0 8 01 ----- 0000000000 0000002047 0000002048 Unallocated 9 02 00 00 0000002048 0033552383 0033550336 NTFS 0x07 10 11 fls -o 2048 -p -r . physicaldrive0 paths.txt 12 13 findstr i ntuser paths.txt 15 r r 10772-128-4 Users Default NTUSER.DAT 6cced2f1-6e01-11de-8bed-001e0bcd1824 .TM.blf 16 r r 41237-128-3 Users Default NTUSER.DAT 17 r r 41238-128-4 Users Default NTUSER.DAT.LOG 18 r r 10768-128-4 Users Default NTUSER.DAT.LOG1 19 r r 41321-128-1 Users Default NTUSER.DAT.LOG2 20 r r 10563-128-4 Users Default NTUSER.DAT 6cced2f1-6e01-11de-8bed-001e0bcd1824 .TMContainer00000000000000000002.regtrans-ms 21 r r 10773-128-4 Users Default NTUSER.DAT 6cced2f1-6e01-11de-8bed-001e0bcd1824 .TMContainer00000000000000000001.regtrans-ms 22 r r 433-128-1 Users user NTUSER.DAT 6cced2f1-6e01-11de-8bed-001e0bcd1824 .TM.blf 23 r r 372-128-1 Users user NTUSER.DAT 24 snip 25 26 icat -o 2048 . physicaldrive0 372 ntuser-win7x86 Print Keys and Values --------------------- Once we have the extracted registry file, we're able to print out the registry key and its values using any offline tool we have at our disposal. Here are a few RegLookup Python-Registry RegRipper Mitec WRR RegLookup is a nice utility for printing out registry data. You can see an example output of the Run key below, however, note that the value name is not printed out. We are able to see everything else, however reglookup -p 'Software Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion Run' NTUSER-Win7x86.DAT PATH,TYPE,VALUE,MTIME Software Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion Run,KEY,,2016-01-15 21 49 46 Software Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion Run ,SZ,mshta javascript roh0Urp x22ehdEAR8I x22 G9p newpourcents20ActiveXObject x22WScript.Shell x22 c7r6vhuiFM x22moDW7uoJ5 x22 ibh29z G9p.RegRead x22HKCU x5C x5Csoftware x5C x5Cf42603093a x5C x5C2e0575f8 x22 bZU38ElgI x229g95uXT x22 eval ibh29z v4SXZYYP x22x2 x22 , Software Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion Run ,SZ,mshta javascript hCLkQp43l x22GRB x22 w5s1 newpourcents20ActiveXObject x22WScript.Shell x22 dXx1Yr6f x22uk x22 S6RUd w5s1.RegRead x22HKCU x5C x5Csoftware x5C x5Cf42603093a x5C x5C2e0575f8 x22 JTMRIu3 x227Vi x22 eval S6RUd Jkxju49At x225S x22 , I also wrote a script to use Python-Registry in order to print out registry keys of interest. You can see example output from this below python printkey.py NTUSER-Win7x86.DAT Software Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion Run Processing NTUSER-Win7x86.DAT cmi-createhive 6a1c4018-979d-4291-a7dc-7aed1c75b67c software microsoft windows currentversion run VALUENAME 996883f7 VALUE mshta javascript roh0Urp ehdEAR8I G9p newpourcents20ActiveXObject WScript.Shell c7r6vhuiFM moDW7uoJ5 ibh29z G9p.RegRead HKCU software f42603093a 2e0575f8 bZU38ElgI 9g95uXT eval ibh29z v4SXZYYP x2 VALUENAME e4263fbd VALUE mshta javascript hCLkQp43l GRB w5s1 newpourcents20ActiveXObject WScript.Shell dXx1Yr6f uk S6RUd w5s1.RegRead HKCU software f42603093a 2e0575f8 JTMRIu3 7Vi eval S6RUd Jkxju49At 5S Subkeys Harlan Carvey also wrote a RegRipper plugin to detect key and value names with NULL characters. Also, if you need a GUI, Eric Zimmerman's registry tool also parses out these names correctly. So in short, you have a lot of options for parsing out these broken value names with offline tools. Printing Keys and Values Using Volatility ----------------------------------------- As you may guess, you can also get this information using Volatility, but it might not be as straightforward at first. For our first attempt, we will try to use the printkey plugin. Notice that the value name is actually blank in the output below left side of the colon python vol.py -f Win7x86.vmem --profile Win7SP1x86 printkey -K software microsoft windows currentversion run Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.5 Legend S Stable V Volatile ---------------------------- snip Registry C Users user ntuser.dat Key name Run S Last updated 2016-01-15 21 49 45 UTC 0000 Subkeys Values REG_SZ S mshta javascript roh0Urp ehdEAR8I G9p newpourcents20ActiveXObject WScript.Shell c7r6vhuiFM moDW7uoJ5 ibh29z G9p.RegRead HKCU software f42603093a 2e0575f8 bZU38ElgI 9g95uXT eval ibh29z v4SXZYYP x2 REG_SZ S mshta javascript hCLkQp43l GRB w5s1 newpourcents20ActiveXObject WScript.Shell dXx1Yr6f uk S6RUd w5s1.RegRead HKCU software f42603093a 2e0575f8 JTMRIu3 7Vi eval S6RUd Jkxju49At 5S This is because of the way the String class was written. The actual name is still there, however, so we can extract it with volshell. In the code below, lines 4-7 import the RegistryApi to use the correct registry file in this case the user name user . Line 8 gets the key of interest, the Run key defined on line 6 . Then lines 10-11 loop through the raw values contained for that key and print out the dt function output for each value. We can see on lines 15 and 25 that each of these value names have a length of 9, therefore, we should be able to extract a name for these values. We are able to see the raw value for this name by using the .v function on the object of interest. In this case, we'll use it on the .Name member of the value. On lines 34-35, we can see that we get the correct length for the value name and on lines 36-37 we get the correct value name. We can then rerun our loop on line 39 in order to get the full information for these values. 1 python vol.py -f Win7x86.vmem --profile Win7SP1x86 volshell 2 snip 3 4 In 1 import volatility.plugins.registry.registryapi as registryapi 5 In 2 regapi registryapi.RegistryApi self._config 6 In 3 key software microsoft windows currentversion run 7 In 4 regapi.set_current NTUSER.DAT , user 8 In 5 item regapi.reg_get_key None, key 9 10 In 6 for value, data in regapi.reg_yield_values None, key, given_root item, raw True 11 print dt value 12 .... 13 14 0x0 Signature vk 15 0x2 NameLength 9 16 0x4 DataLength 412 17 0x8 Data 511024 18 0xc Type 1 19 0x10 Flags 1 20 0x12 Spare 28515 21 0x14 Name 22 None 23 24 0x0 Signature vk 25 0x2 NameLength 9 26 0x4 DataLength 378 27 0x8 Data 517464 28 0xc Type 1 29 0x10 Flags 1 30 0x12 Spare 0 31 0x14 Name 32 None 33 34 In 7 len value.Name.v 35 Out 7 9 36 In 8 print str value.Name.v 37 e4263fbd 38 39 In 9 for value, data in regapi.reg_yield_values None, key, given_root item, raw True print value.Name.v , data .... 996883f7 mshta javascript roh0Urp ehdEAR8I G9p newpourcents20ActiveXObject WScript.Shell c7r6vhuiFM moDW7uoJ5 ibh29z G9p.RegRead HKCU software f42603093a 2e0575f8 bZU38ElgI 9g95uXT eval ibh29z v4SXZYYP x2 e4263fbd mshta javascript hCLkQp43l GRB w5s1 newpourcents20ActiveXObject WScript.Shell dXx1Yr6f uk S6RUd w5s1.RegRead HKCU software f42603093a 2e0575f8 JTMRIu3 7Vi eval S6RUd Jkxju49At 5S Unfortunately, that's all the time we have for today, but we'll continue this thought sometime next week. Until then, here's a bit of homework for you to watch and a bit to read. Coming up next Finding interesting registry values Enterprise-wide




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