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ZeuS Gameover Overview

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ZeuS Gameover Overview

Par Minded Security Blog
Le [2012-09-25] à 20:00:53



Présentation : In this blog post we are going to discuss about an interesting ZeuS variant called Gameover that in the last quarter showed an impressive activity in terms of spread and infection rate especially in Italy. According to f-secure 1 Italy has a significant number of Gameover infections. And according to the Secureworks 2 on 678,000 unique Gameover bots, of which, 5.1pourcents are Italian. ZeuS Gameover is a post source-code-leak variant of the original ZeuS trojan. One of the most peculiar characteristics of Gameover is that it relies upon a Peer to Peer botnet infrastructure, in such way that removes the centralized Command and Control server 2 , additionally it implements a DGA Domain Generation Algorithm which produces domains like these in case the peers cannot be reached lhcemrwpfllnlblfevkjf.com buzptsuoyhnrqdyprohqozsl.ru cqheuowcjnaixeuzlcyemsqwpeqrw.com nbmfxcyptpjtwbaxkjvbmpxwzu.info pcetrgnbuwbynpfxibotsqc.org soibeueutaeytsodpvcbmzh.net cegquowoibtfqozpvxgnroaqup.biz xqotqwqorklbpbkbdekflrautjf.ru kzltwdezcajnceeutghdeqvkbi.com ijgqamxaisgphqubhrkqwljx.net tsxoribauktmtzhpuxskt.org According to Symantec 3 every peer in the botnet can act as a C C server, while none of them really are one. Bots are now capable of downloading commands, configuration files, and executables from other bots every compromised computer is capable of providing data to the other bots. We don t yet know how the stolen data is communicated back to the attackers, but it s possible that such data is routed through the peers until it reaches a drop zone controlled by the attackers. Gameover WebInjects Like other ZeuS versions, Gameover bases its attacks on the MiTB Man in The Browser approach this implies that the malware has a configuration file which contains a list of financial institutions and the relative malicious JavaScript code to be injected when a victim visits one of these pages. An interesting aspect of this variant, is that configuration and the whole Web Injection mechanism is significantly different from previous ZeuS versions. WebInjection Configuration management is demanded to a malicious thread injected into the running browser process like other versions and can be synthetized as follows Configuration Decryption Regular Expressions interpretation in order to find matching URLs Web Injection code decryption and commit into the victim page The malicious thread will take the URL infected by the victim in order to match this with an encoded list of URLs, which constitutes the Target Institutions. Here comes one of the peculiar characteristics of Gameover, which is given by the fact that there is a double list of target URLs 1. List of Default targets 2. List of Web Injection targets Basically URL matching goes through two lists of targets, the first one which is already public and known https bancopostaimpresaonline.poste.it bpiol lastFortyMovementsBalance.do method loadLastFortyMovementList https www3.csebo.it https qweb.quercia.com https www.sparkasse.it https dbonline.deutsche-bank.it https .cedacri.it https www.bancagenerali.it https www.csebo.it https .deutsche-bank.it This partial list the complete one contains targets from various countries show the targeted Italian financial institutions 1 The analysis of multiple samples and configurations showed that this list is near to be immutable, especially about Italian targets. But by going a little deeper into the config decryption process, Minded Security observed that there is a second list of targets, significantly larger than the first, which contains a huge amount of financial institutions targeted by the web injection. Below the complete list of Gameover targets https express.53.com express logo https direct.53.com direct logon53Direct.js https www.abbeyinternational.com Login.asp alahliecorp.com AlahlieCorp web CorporateSignOn.asp alinmaonline.com cb servlet cbjsp-ns logi alinmaonline.com efs servlet efs https www.almubasher.com.sa retail LogonRetail.js https www.almubasher.com.sa NewECorporate p login https www.arabi-online.net efs servlet efs jsp-ns logi https www.bankalbilad.com retail logon.d https bnycash.bankofny.com ... Full list can be downloaded from http www.mindedsecurity.com fileshare zeus_p2p-gameover-25092012.txt According to the Reverse Engineered code, this second list comes from the same configuration used for the first and it s decrypted immediately after that the default one has been checked. Due to the same logic behind the decryption process, it s possible to catch this list in the same way used to carve the default one, like in the screenshot below An aspect to note is that, the URL triggers are not immediately visible this time, cause the following pattern adopted True_Char 0x1C True_Char 0x1C etc. or True_Char 0x1D True_Char 0x1D etc. When victim s URL matches with one of the above, the corresponding web inject will be decrypted and injected into the target page. Gameover ATS Let s now take a closer look to a typical Gameover injected malicious JavaScript code _GATE 'https dom .eu php gate.php d ' window.pseudo eval function p,a,c,k,e,r e function c .. FloatcontentsfilternodeTypeTEXT_NODEnodeValueDistinteBonificidistintastoricoprototype As you can see _GATE contains an external resource obscured for security reasons , this location will be used to gather all stolen information. This technology is known as ATS Automated Transfer System 4 Unlike WebInject files that displayed pop-ups to steal victims credentials, ATSs remained invisible. These did not prompt the display of pop-ups as well as performed several tasks such as checking account balances and conducting wire transfers using the victims credentials without alerting them. ATS scripts also modified account balances and hid illegitimate transactions to hide traces of their presence to victims. As long as a system remains infected with an ATS, its user will not be able to see the illegitimate transactions made from his her accounts. This essentially brings to the fore automated online banking fraud because cybercriminals no longer need user intervention to obtain money. In other words an ATS system allow criminals to manage stolen information simply by accessing a web application, the following screenshot show the login page of a typical ATS application Follows a screenshot taken from one of those ATS domains, shown below the Automated Transfer Rule building And here another screenshot from the same ATS which targets a different bank It s finally pretty interesting to put in evidence the fact that the usage of an ATS web inject changed the way dropzones works, because this last one will be no longer a centralized resource easy to monitor and consequently takedown , but became a distributed one. Each webinject could contain a different ATS server. Trackdown ATS users As final step Minded Security decided to track down the ATS system in order to observe the involved user activity, shown below a Geo Map of the observed access. User's IP logged comes out from cloud server, in this way they can protect their identity. Conclusions Gameover poses a serious risk not only for Italian financial institutions Minded Security will maintain a high awareness level on the evolution of this threat. References 1 http www.f-secure.com weblog archives 00002424.html 2 http www.secureworks.com research threats The_Lifecycle_of_Peer_to_Peer_Gameover_ZeuS 3 http www.symantec.com connect blogs zeusbotspyeye-p2p-updated-fortifying-botnet 4 http www.trendmicro.com cloud-content us pdfs security-intelligence white-papers wp_automating_online_banking_fraud.pdf




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