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Towards Orphan Works Legislation in the EU

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Towards Orphan Works Legislation in the EU

Par Very Very IP
Le [2012-07-22] à 14:22:45



Présentation : When the European Union EU Commission presented its Intellectual Property Strategy in May 2011, it also presented a Proposal for a Directive on certain permitted uses of orphan works Proposal . On June 8, 2012, this draft legislation was informally adopted by the Parliament and Council Representatives. On June 8, 2012, the Council published its approval of the final compromise text. Orphan works are copyrighted works whose owners are difficult or impossible to locate. Because of this issue, these works cannot be made available to the public as part of libraries or archives digitizing projects. It is a loss for the public, while not being a gain for the unknown rights holders. Indeed, many of the orphan works are out of commerce, and thus difficult, if not impossible to buy, while still being protected by copyright. If the owner of a work still protected by copyright is not found, the risk of copyright liability stands, as the copyright owner may become aware that his work has been used without his permission, and may bring a copyright infringement suit after the work has been digitized and placed in a database. In order to foster legal certainty, legislation needs to be enacted. Preserving Europe s Cultural Heritage Legislating by a Directive how orphan works may be used was presented by the 2011 Intellectual Property Strategy as a way to promote the dissemination of Europe s intellectual and cultural heritage. Even before the Proposal was published, the Commission had recommended in 2006 that Member States should creat e mechanisms to facilitate the use of orphan works. The 2006 Commission Recommendation had noted that Digitization is an important means of ensuring greater access to cultural material. In some cases it is the only means of ensuring that such material will be available for future generations. It also recommended the promotion of a European digital library, which would serve as a multilingual common access point to Europe's digital cultural material distributed by different organizations. The Digital Agenda for Europe, which is a roadmap for bringing the benefits of a digital society and economy to EU citizens, includes a Digital Libraries Initiative. The website Europeana already acts as a single access point allowing the consultation of digital copies of materials held by libraries, museums and archives. The main objective of the Proposal was to create a legal framework to ensure that libraries, museums and archives can digitize orphan works contained in their collections, in order to ensure a lawful, cross-border online access to orphan works when such orphan works are used in the pursuance of the public interest mission of such institutions. What is in the EU Directive Under the Directive, a work would be orphan if, after a diligent search made in good faith, the copyright holder cannot be identified. An orphan work would be considered such in all of the Member States. In order to avoid duplication of searches, a diligent search would only have to be conducted in the Member State where the work was first published or broadcast Recital 15 of the Proposal, and article 3 of the Proposal . Orphan works would only be used by publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments or museums archives, film heritage institutions and public service broadcasting organizations article 1 . They would be allowed to use an orphan work, provided that they maintain a record of their diligent search, and also indicate the name of the right holder if he has been identified but not located , article 7 1 of the Proposal. Rights holders would be able to put an end to the orphan status of their work, and would then be compensated for the use which was made of it. They would be able to claim their remuneration within a period of time fixed by the Member State, which could not be more than five years from the data of the use of the orphan work article 7 1 6 of the Proposal . Orphan Works in the U.S. One remembers that, in 2004, Google started scanning the books of several major U.S. university libraries, with their permission. The goal of the Google Print Project was to create a sort of universal digital library. Some of the books thus scanned were still under copyright, but Google had not sought permission of the copyright holders to scan their works. Some of them, authors and publishers, filed a class action suit against Google, claiming copyright infringement. Google claimed fair use. The parties eventually worked together on a settlement. But, in 2011, Judge Chin of the Southern District Court of New York denied the parties' request for final settlement approval. One of his arguments was that the establishment of a mechanism for exploiting unclaimed books is a matter more suited for Congress that this Court. However, Congress does not seem anxious to enact such a law. The U.S. Copyright Office had published in 2006 a report on Orphan Works, written at the request of U.S. Senators Orrin Hatch and Patrick Leahy, a request supported by Congressmen Lamar Smith and Howard Berman. The report concluded that legislation was necessary, and provided Recommended Statutory Language. A new section 514 of the Copyright Act would have limited remedies for infringement of an orphan work if, before using an orphan work, the infringer had performed a good faith, reasonably diligent search to locate the owner of the infringed copyright, and also had throughout the course of the infringement, provided attribution to the author and copyright owner of the work, if possible and as appropriate under the circumstances. A bill was introduced in House in 2006, H.R.5439, the Orphan Works Act of 2006, which would have allowed the use of orphan works, without infringement, but only after having conducted a diligent research to find the rights holder. A reasonably diligent search would have included the use of reasonably available expert assistance and reasonably available technology. The bill,however, was not enacted. A similar bipartisan, bicameral, orphan works bill was introduced in 2008, the Orphan Works Act of 2008, H.R.5889, and S. 2913. If it had been enacted, the bill would have allowed users to display an orphan work without fearing an infringement suit, provided that they had performed a good faith search to locate the copyright holder, and also provided that they provid e attribution, in a manner that is reasonable under the circumstances, to the legal owner of the infringed copyright, if such legal owner was known with a reasonable degree of certainty, based on information obtained in performing the qualifying search. What is Ahead A Directive is not directly applicable by the EU Member States, but they all must implement it in their own national legislation. Therefore, if the Orphan Works Directive is enacted, all of the 27 EU Member States will have to enact orphan works legislation. At least one Member State, the United Kingdom, is already planning to enact such legislation. Its government published this month a policy statement on modernizing copyright licensing, which stated that the government intends to legislate as soon as possible in the field of Orphan Works. In its policy statement, the UK government noted that orphan works being unusable and benefiting no-one is not only a cultural issue, but is also a very real economic issue that potentially valuable intangible assets are not being used, and announced that it will introduce legislation for orphan works enabling their use after a diligent search and confirmed by an independent authorizing body. Let s hope that the U.S. will also soon have such legislation, to prevent U.S. copyright holders to be less protected in their own country than abroad. However, no orphan works bill is currently debated in Congress, and so it is unlikely that such a bill will be sponsored before the November elections. 'On cookbooks, orphans, and out-of-print books', by Flickr user opensourceway, used under 2.0 Generic license CC BY-SA 2.0




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